In this innovation, it is shown that a commonly used rule of thumb (that the truncation depth of a convolutional code should be five times the memory length, m, of the code) is accurate only for rate 1/2 codes. In fact, the truncation depth should be 2.5 m/(1 - r), where r is the code rate. The accuracy of this new rule is demonstrated by tabulating the distance properties of a large set of known codes. This new rule was derived by bounding the losses due to truncation as a function of the code...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TABULATION PROCESSES, BOUNDARIES, SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIOS,...

This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE EXPLORATION, ETHICS, SPACE FLIGHT, LIFE SCIENCES,...

A numerical procedure to compute the conformal mapping of a given n-tuply connected region onto a region with any specified boundary shapes and with several possible normalizations is developed and implemented. Procedures for calculating translation and magnification parameters are given.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, CONFORMAL MAPPING, REGIONS, GREEN'S FUNCTIONS,...

NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LASER APPLICATIONS, LINE OF SIGHT, SURVEYS, TERRAIN,...

We compare existing techniques to bound the resource availability of partially ordered events. We first show that, contrary to intuition, two existing techniques, one due to Laborie and one due to Muscettola, are not strictly comparable in terms of the size of the search trees generated under chronological search with a fixed heuristic. We describe a generalization of these techniques called the Flow Balance Constraint to tightly bound the amount of available resource for a set of partially...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, PROVING, CONSTRAINTS, BALANCE, ALGORITHMS,...

Characterization of the transport properties of oxygen through silver was continued. Specifically, experiments measuring the transport through Ag(111), Ag(110), Ag(100) single crystals and through Ag0.05 Zr alloy were completed. In addition, experiments using glow discharge excitation of oxygen to assist in the transport were completed. It was found that the permeability through the different orientations of single crystal Ag was the same, but significant differences existed in the diffusivity....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADSORPTION, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, DIFFUSIVITY, DISSOCIATION,...

My NASA proposal included plans to examine the dynamics of the eastern oceanic boundary, with a view towards those processes important to the interior. Several relevant tasks have been completed and either have appeared or will appear soon in the refereed literature.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OCEAN DYNAMICS, PLANETARY WAVES, STABILITY, TOPOGRAPHY,...

A solution to the problem of automatic location of objects in digital pictures by computer is presented. A self-scaling local edge detector which can be applied in parallel on a picture is described. Clustering algorithms and boundary following algorithms which are sequential in nature process the edge data to locate images of objects.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, INFORMATION THEORY, PATTERN RECOGNITION,...

Certain anions OH(-), F(-) and Gl(-) are shown to enhance grain growth in MgO. The magnitude of their effect decreases in the order in which the anions are listed and depends on their location (solid-solution, second phase) in the MgO lattice. As most anions exhibit relatively high vapor pressures at sintering temperatures, they retard densification and invariably promote residual porosity. The role of anions on grain growth rates was studied in relation to their effect on pore mobility and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANIONS, GRAIN BOUNDARIES, MAGNESIUM, OXIDES, DENSIFICATION,...

Electromagnetic heating of rock-forming materials most probably was an important process in the early history of the solar system. Electrical conductivity experiments of representative materials such as carbonaceous chondrites are necessary to obtain data for use in electromagnetic heating models. With the assumption that carbon was present at grain boundaries in the material that comprised the meteorite parent bodies, the electrical heating of such bodies was calculated as a function of body...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES, ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, HEATING,...

We cover the models and statistics associated with single event effects (and total ionizing dose), why we need them, and how to use them: What models are used, what errors exist in real test data, and what the model allows us to say about the DUT will be discussed. In addition, how to use other sources of data such as historical, heritage, and similar part and how to apply experience, physics, and expert opinion to the analysis will be covered. Also included will be concepts of Bayesian...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, RATES (PER TIME), HARDNESS,...

Many existing methods to calculate CTOD can be costly and complicated, or apply only to particular configurations. A new numerical method for calculating CTOD was investigated. NASGRO's Boundary Element module NASBEM was adapted to calculate displacements at any point on the crack. Demonstrated for a number of crack configurations: a) finite and infinite domains; b) center and edge cracks; and c) complex cases with several cracks and holes. Great accuracy at minimal computational cost.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DISPLACEMENT, HOLES (MECHANICS), BOUNDARIES, CRACKS, DOMAINS,...

One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COPPER OXIDES, FABRICATION, MAGNETIC FIELDS,...

Electrostatic Vlasov turbulence in a bounded spatial region is considered. An iterative approximation method with a proof of convergence is constructed. The method is non-linear and applicable to strong turbulence.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, ELECTROSTATICS, TURBULENCE, VLASOV EQUATIONS,...

Programs are described which permit classification runs with the LARSYS software to be made on images which have the ground truth field boundaries removed.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, GROUND TRUTH, IMAGE PROCESSING,...

An algorithm is described that performs the task of drawing equal level contours on a plane, which requires interpolation in two dimensions based on data prescribed at points distributed irregularly over the plane. The approach is described in detail. The computer program that implements the algorithm is documented and listed.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CHARTS, CONTOURS, PLOTTING, BOUNDARIES, COMPUTER...

The stability/instability condition of a turbine rotor with axisymmetric supports is determined in the presence of gyroscopic loads and rub-induced destabilizing forces. A modal representation of the turbine engine is used, with one mode in each of the vertical and horizontal planes. The use of non-spinning rotor modes permits an explicit treatment of gyroscopic effects. The two linearized modal equations of motion of a rotor with axisymmetric supports are reduced to a single equation in a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STABILITY, DESTABILIZATION, TURBINE ENGINES, ROTATION,...

A procedure for generating smooth uniformly clustered single-zone grids using enhanced elliptic grid generation has been demonstrated here for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) geometries such as aeroshell and canopy. The procedure obviates the need for generating multizone grids for such geometries, as reported in the literature. This has been possible because the enhanced elliptic grid generator automatically generates clustered grids without manual prescription of decay parameters needed...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS,...

Boundary Scan use for DCA: (1) test at interconnect level; (2) automated testing that logs failures; and (3) Boundary Scan as a valuable resource to testing new technologies.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, SCANNERS, CHIPS, FAILURE, TEST VEHICLES, Parsons,...

Most researchers attribute grain boundary embrittlement in electro-deposited nickel (ED-Ni) to the presence of small quantities of sulfur as an impurity. It occurs in a highly mobile form that segregates to the grain boundaries. Evaluation of sulfur segregation requires that a sample be fractured through the grain boundaries. However, this action may not always be possible. ED-Ni is inherently tough at ambient temperature, especially if a low level of sulfur was intentionally maintained. A new...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAIN BOUNDARIES, SULFUR, DEPOSITS, IMPURITIES, PHOTOELECTRON...

We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CONVERGENCE, DERIVATION, PATTERNS, SEARCHING,...

The efficacy of the modelling of the solidification of castings is typically tested against observed cooling curves and the final grain structures and sizes. Without thermo solutal convection, equiaxed grain formation is promoted by introduction of heterogeneous substrates into the melt, as grain refiners. With efficient thermo solutal convection, dendrite fragments from the mushy zone can act as an intrinsic source of equiaxed grains and resort to grain refining additions is unnecessary. The...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAIN SIZE, GRAIN BOUNDARIES, HETEROGENEITY, FRAGMENTATION,...

The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 atomic percent at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 atomic percent of oxygen. These oxide particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OXYGEN, SOLUBILITY, TANTALUM, GRAIN BOUNDARIES, OXIDES,...

A fast algorithm was developed for accurately generating boundary conforming, three dimensional, consecutively refined, computational grids applicable to arbitrary axial turbomachinery geometry. The method is based on using a single analytic function to generate two dimensional grids on a number of coaxial axisymmetric surfaces positioned between the hub and the shroud. These grids are of the "O" type and are characterized by quasi-orthogonality, geometric periodicity, and an adequate...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, BOUNDARIES, GEOMETRY, GRID GENERATION...

Three Ni-BaTiO3 ceramic capacitor lots with the same specification (chip size, capacitance, and rated voltage) and the same reliability level, made by three different manufacturers, were degraded using highly accelerated life stress testing (HALST) with the same temperature and applied voltage conditions. The reliability, as characterized by mean time to failure (MTTF), differed by more than one order of magnitude among the capacitor lots. A theoretical model based on the existence of depletion...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CERAMICS, CAPACITORS, BARIUM TITANATES, CAPACITANCE,...

A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MEMBRANES, CRYSTALLIZATION, DETERGENTS, PROTEIN CRYSTAL...

In 1978, the Russian mathematician V. Kharitonov published a remarkably simple necessary and sufficient condition in order that a rectangular parallelpiped of polynomials be a stable set. Here, stable is taken to mean that the polynomials have no roots in the closed right-half of the complex plane. The possibility of generalizing this result was studied by numerous authors. A set, Q, of polynomials is given and a necessary and sufficient condition that the set be stable is sought. Perhaps the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, BOUNDARIES, NUMERICAL STABILITY, OPTIMIZATION,...

A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIOACTIVITY, MASSIVE STARS, SOLAR NEBULA, EJECTA,...

A circuit having a fingerprint for identification of a particular instantiation of the circuit is disclosed. The circuit may include a plurality of digital circuits or gates. Each of the digital circuits or gates is responsive to a configuration voltage applied to its analog input for controlling whether or not the digital circuit or gate performs its intended digital function and each of the digital circuits or gates transitioning between its functional state and its at least one other state...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LOGIC CIRCUITS, DIGITAL ELECTRONICS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL,...

Several researchers have experimentally shown that substantial improvements can be obtained in difficult pattern recognition problems by combining or integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers. This chapter provides an analytical framework to quantify the improvements in classification results due to combining. The results apply to both linear combiners and order statistics combiners. We first show that to a first order approximation, the error rate obtained over and above the Bayes error...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLASSIFICATIONS, CLASSIFIERS, PATTERN RECOGNITION,...

A technique is advanced for computing the radius of curvature of blended rolled edge reflector surfaces at the shadow boundary, in the plane perpendicular to the shadow boundary contour. This curvature must be known in order to compute the spurious endpoint contributions in the physical optics (PO) solution for the scattering from reflectors with rolled edges. The technique is applicable to reflectors with radially-defined rim-shapes and rolled edge terminations. The radius of curvature for...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, BOUNDARIES, EDGES, ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING,...

Three Ni-BaTiO3 ceramic capacitor lots with the same specification (chip size, capacitance, and rated voltage) and the same reliability level, made by three different manufacturers, were degraded using highly accelerated life stress testing (HALST) with the same temperature and applied voltage conditions. The reliability, as characterized by mean time to failure (MTTF), differed by more than one order of magnitude among the capacitor lots. A theoretical model based on the existence of depletion...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CERAMICS, CAPACITORS, BARIUM TITANATES, AUTOMOBILES,...

A circuit having a fingerprint for identification of a particular instantiation of the circuit is disclosed. The circuit may include a plurality of digital circuits or gates. Each of the digital circuits or gates is responsive to a configuration voltage applied to its analog input for controlling whether or not the digital circuit or gate performs its intended digital function and each of the digital circuits or gates transitioning between its functional state and its at least one other state...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CIRCUITS, DIGITAL ELECTRONICS, IDENTIFYING, LOGIC CIRCUITS,...

A two dimensional mesh verification algorithm is discussed which assumes that a finite element mesh is represented in a program by lists of data, i.e., vertex coordinates, element incidences, boundary data, which describe a collection of triangles. A set of conditions are placed on the triangles (i.e., on the list data) which ensure that the triangles tile a region and which also can be verified by the algorithm.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COORDINATES, MESH, APEXES, BOUNDARIES, ERRORS,...

One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COPPER OXIDES, FABRICATION, MAGNETIC FIELDS,...

Results are given of a comparative study of numerical procedures for computing solid wall boundary points in supersonic inviscid flow calculatons. Twenty five different calculation procedures were tested on two sample problems: a simple expansion wave and a simple compression (two-dimensional steady flow). A simple calculation procedure was developed. The merits and shortcomings of the various procedures are discussed, along with complications for three-dimensional and time-dependent flows.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, FLUID BOUNDARIES, INVISCID FLOW,...

Bezier and B-spline patches are popular tools in surface modeling. With these methods, a surface is represented by the tensor product of univariate approximations. The extension of this concept to three-dimensions is obvious and can be applied to the problem of grid generation. This report will demonstrate how three-dimensional patches can be used in solid modeling and in the generation of grids. Examples will be given demonstrating the ability to generate three-dimensional grids directly from...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, GRID GENERATION...

The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEAT PIPES, HEAT TRANSFER, TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, FLUID...

Eleven sensitivity experiments that were made with general circulation models to see how land-surface boundary conditions can influence the rainfall, temperature, and motion fields of the atmosphere are discussed. In one group of experiments, different soil moistures or albedos are prescribed as time-invariant boundary conditions. In a second group, different soil moistures or different albedos are initially prescribed, and the soil moisture (but not the albedo) is allowed to change with time...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS, BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, CLIMATE,...

Solidification mechanisms had a dominant influence on microfissuring behavior of the test group. Carbon modified the Laves formation significantly and showed that one approach to alloy design would be balancing carbide formers against Laves formers. Boron's strong effect on microfissuring can be traced to its potency as a Laves former. Boron's segregation to grain boundaries plays at best a secondary role in microfissuring.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BORON, CRACKING (FRACTURING), MICROCRACKS, NIOBIUM ALLOYS,...

In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, COMPUTATIONAL AEROACOUSTICS, PERFECTLY MATCHED...

A new approach is devised to construct high order CESE schemes which would avoid the common shortcomings of traditional high order schemes including: (a) susceptibility to computational instabilities; (b) computational inefficiency due to their local implicit nature (i.e., at each mesh points, need to solve a system of linear/nonlinear equations involving all the mesh variables associated with this mesh point); (c) use of large and elaborate stencils which complicates boundary treatments and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, PARALLEL PROCESSING (COMPUTERS), LINEAR...

This analysis applies to a quasi-neutral region of uniformly doped semiconductor material. The objective is to solve for the current density in terms of the carrier density and the electric potential boundary values. It is shown that the combined effects of drift and diffusion can be calculated by assuming the current density to obey Ohm's law, but with modified electric potential boundary values.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHARGE TRANSFER, CURRENT DENSITY, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, OHMS...

The creation and subsequent motion of singularities of solution to classical Rayleigh-Taylor flow (two dimensional inviscid, incompressible fluid over a vacuum) are discussed. For a specific set of initial conditions, we give analytical evidence to suggest the instantaneous formation of one or more singularities at specific points in the unphysical plane, whose locations depend sensitively on small changes in initial conditions in the physical domain. One-half power singularities are created in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW, INVISCID FLOW, KINEMATICS,...

A method is presented for computing orthogonal boundary fitted coordinate systems for geometries with coordinate distributions specified on all boundaries. The system which has found most extensive use in generating boundary fitted grids is made up of Poisson equations, of which the functions P and Q provide a means for controlling the spacing and density of grid lines in the coordinate system. While questions remain concerning the existence and uniqueness of orthogonal systems, the generating...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, COORDINATES, GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS),...

We extend graph embedding techniques for bounding the spectral condition number of preconditioned systems involving symmetric, irreducibly diagonally dominant M-matrices to systems where the preconditioner is not diagonally dominant. In particular, this allows us to bound the spectral condition number when the preconditioner is based on an incomplete factorization. We provide a review of previous techniques, describe our extension, and give examples both of a bound for a model problem, and of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), EMBEDDING, FACTORIZATION, SPECTRA,...

An algorithm to maneuver an air vehicle to intercept and follow a pre-planned path while remaining within an arbitrary, closed boundary is outlined. The immediate application is for an autonomous lost-link return-to-runway function for a remotely piloted vehicle being developed by NASA, but other applications are hypothesized. Results of implementation in a flight simulator are given.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REMOTELY PILOTED VEHICLES, FLIGHT SIMULATORS, ALGORITHMS,...

Understanding the fundamental age relationships of the different parts of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy is essential to fully understanding the events that shaped the early history and formation of the surface of Mars. A dominant question is what are the true relative ages of the Northern Lowlands and the Southern Highlands? Using MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Viking visual images, a dataset of both buried and visible crater diameters was created over a nine million sq km study area...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGHLANDS, DICHOTOMIES, CRUSTS, MARS SURFACE, BOUNDARIES,...

The first study area involved magnesium oxide and the role of anion impurities, while the second area was directed toward slow crack growth in silicon nitride-silicon carbide ceramics. The oxide program involved development of fabrication techniques for anion doped materials and evaluation of the role of these anions in the hot pressing response, grain boundary diffusion of nickel doped material, grain boundary microhardness, and grain growth.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CERAMICS, FRACTURE MECHANICS, CRACK PROPAGATION, GRAIN...

A new numerical method based on the strip-yield analysis approach was developed for calculating the Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD). This approach can be applied for different crack configurations having infinite and finite geometries, and arbitrary applied loading conditions. The new technique adapts the boundary element / dislocation density method to obtain crack-face opening displacements at any point on a crack, and succeeds by obtaining requisite values as a series of definite...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LOADS (FORCES), INTEGRALS, CRACK OPENING DISPLACEMENT,...